Top 10 Best Pulse Oximeters in 2022 – Buyers Guide
A pulse oximeter is a medical device that measures the oxygen content in the blood,” says Tsuang. “It’s an indicator of how much oxygen from the air we’re breathing into our lungs gets into the blood.” Clipped onto a fingertip, the device displays both oxygen saturation, as a percentage of red blood cells carrying oxygen, and your pulse rate.
The normal range for oxygen saturation is 95–100 percent. Tsuang typically prescribes them for home use in patients with preexisting lung conditions or those who require supplemental oxygen. Because COVID-19 and pneumonia related to the infection can cause low oxygen, oxygen monitoring is critical in more severe cases.
Pulse oximeters have traditionally been used by nurses and clinicians, or for home monitoring with conditions like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or pulmonary fibrosis. The device is a painless, reliable way to check someone’s oxygen saturation—or the amount of oxygen that’s currently being pumped through your blood.
If you feel uncomfortable all the time and feel like something is wrong with your body and vitals, but does not have the option to go to a hospital or clinic near you, then this product is a must-have for you.
Pulse oximeters for use at home aren’t new, but as COVID-19 continues to make health and safety a top priority, more people are looking for ways to manage their health.
Below is a comprehensive guide of all things pulse oximeters, detailing everything from what a normal read looks like, to insight into how to choose the best product for your needs.
These top 10 best pulse oximeters will let you see and monitor your pulse rate even at home, along with your blood oxygen saturation or even more. These products come in a variety of features and options that will let you select what is the best among them. Purchase a unit now and get the opportunity for the product to do the job for you.
Table of Contents
- Top 10 Best Pulse Oximeters picks for 2022
- 10. Beurer Digital Fingertip Pulse Oximeter
- 9. FaceLake ® FL400 Pulse Oximeter
- 8. mibest OLED Finger Pulse Oximeter
- 7. Deluxe SM-110 Two Way Display Finger Pulse Oximeter
- 6. Zacurate Pro Series 500DL Fingertip Pulse Oximeter
- 5. AccuMed Fingertip Pulse Oximeter
- 4. Innovo Fingertip Pulse Oximeter
- 3. CONTEC CMS50NA Pulse Oximeter
- 2. ClinicalGuard CMS-50DL Fingertip Pulse Oximeter
- 1. iHealth Air Wireless Fingertip Pulse Oximeter
- Best Pulse Oximeters For Your Fingertip Buyer’s Guide
Top 10 Best Pulse Oximeters picks for 2022
10. Beurer Digital Fingertip Pulse Oximeter
Beurer PO30 Pulse Oximeter uses two rays of light with differing wavelengths, which strike the finger inserted inside the housing. Anywhere Included with a case and strap, take your pulse oximeter anywhere you go to keep track of your oxygen saturation.
Beurer PO30 Pulse Oximeter is designed to determine the oxygen saturation in the blood and heart rate. The device can be used during sport at high altitudes or if one has health problems. Moreover, the pulse is also shown graphically on the color display.
Suitable for patients suffering from diseases like heart failure, bronchial asthma and other heart ailments. The design makes it an ideal choice for high-altitude sports and athletes. It is a user-friendly device that is easy to use and has a simple interface. Features four graphic display formats, low battery indicator and auto-switch off for effective saving of battery.
The Beurer PO30 boasts a large, bright LED display for clearer reading of your measurements. You have the option to select your desired display format (vertical or horizontal) and you can also alter the brightness of the display for a clearer reading. The Beurer PO30 will evaluate your measurements and what classification you are in; whether your SpO₂ is normal, decreased or critical.
This pulse oximeter from Beurer is just perfect for persons with heart failure, even chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchial asthma among others. It substantially determines oxygen saturation SpO2 and pulse and displays four open views with pulse curve display. Included in the package are batteries, carrying case, and restraining strap. This pulse oximeter is a convenient and helpful self-monitoring tool for the level of oxygen saturation in your body. More so, it has incredible features of a flexible display for comfortable viewing of the measured results and shows orientation may be changed by pressing the Start button.
On the pulse oximeter’s display; you will see four different views: the oxygen saturation (valued in %), pulse rate (value in beats per minute), pulse wave (plethysmographic wave) and the pulse bar, along with the battery level indicator, all on one display!
The light, compact finger pulse oximeter is easy to operate, comfortable on the finger and is a pain-free, safe and accurate way to monitor your heart rate. The Beurer PO30 is suitable for everyone.
Monitor your heart with the Beurer PO30; after all, your heart is looking after you!
- Very accurate
- Long lasting
- Has a relatively sophisticated display
- Well built
- Very handy
9. FaceLake ® FL400 Pulse Oximeter
The Facelake FL400 Pulse Oximeter reads Sp02 and pulse in less than 10 seconds (though for the most accurate reading up to 24 seconds is recommended), features an easy-to-read black on red digital display with a handy battery level indicator, and is made to fit all ages. It comes with a handy nylon carrying case, two AAA batteries for use right out of the box, a lanyard for wearing the device around the neck, and a bright, colorful blue and white design which makes it harder to lose in clutter.
The FL400 White registers a constant reading in several seconds (24sec. For the most accuracy) the left number is the SPO2 (blood oxygen saturation) level and the right number, the pulse rate. Easy battery removal Convenience is key and the device is an easy device to take on the go.
The device adjusts for small to large fingers, but fingers that are too small show mixed results, according to the manufacturer. The FL-400 reads your SPO2 and pulse rate (heartbeat) it is not recommended for running since it hangs on your finger. The device’s battery configuration is misleading; the batteries should be inserted following the + and – on the bottom of the battery input area with the positive end of one of them pointing.
Though capable of displaying data in 10 seconds or less, users who want the most accurate reading will have to wait for about 24 seconds, meaning it’s a little slower than some models on our list, but it’s still a very accurate and durable model whose design and color make it a great choice for seniors and people who tend to lose small items. If you need to measure more than your oxygen, take a look at the best fitbit.
This pulse oximeter from Facelake is a product individually tested for accuracy. This means that each device undergoes rigorous testing and is approved for use by the FDA. Likewise, it has quick readings which find in incredibly easy to use. You just have to turn on the device only, place your finger on it, and have your pulse rate read and SpO2 instantly displayed. Included in the package are two pieces of AAA batteries for free, a convenient carry case, useful lanyard and illustrated instruction manual. This product is recommended to use for sports and or aviation use only. And for factory defects, Facelake also gives one year warranty period.
- Works fine
- Very convenient to use
- Pocket size
- Very sturdy
- Easy to hold and handy
- Striking blue and white design make it hard to misplace
- Ready to use out of the box
- Includes nylon sack for packing in bags
8. mibest OLED Finger Pulse Oximeter
mibest’s offering measures SpO2, pulse rate, and pulse strength in real-time, letting you get answers fast and notice any significant fluctuations after the initial readout, ensuring a more accurate picture of those three items.
This is one of our favorite pulse oximeters for 3 primary reasons — quality, reliability, and, of course, affordability.
Sometimes it can be difficult to find a reliable pulse oximeter without forking over an arm and a leg to pay for it. Well now, you can look no further than this dual-color pulse oximeter from mibest that gives you high quality at a great price.
We also love this one because it’s easy to use and comes ready right out of the box. Just pop in the AAA batteries (which are included) and it’s ready to go. Then you can proceed to insert your finger into the oximeter and it’ll provide accurate readings within seconds.
This ones comes in a nice, sleek design that fits comfortable in your hand or pocket. And if you’re the type of person who does not like too many items in your pockets, it comes with a carrying case and a lanyard as well. I was very excited when Mibest approached us to work with them as a sponsor. They’re one of the leading providers of pulse oximeters, so I can fully support their brand with confidence.
Boasting a dual color screen with multidirectional waveforms, 10 levels of adjustable brightness, and 6 customizable display settings, mibest not only wants you to see your information in a way you understand, it wants to ensure that it also appeals to you aesthetically.
The Oximeter’s one-button operation makes it usable for any and all ages. To further enhance that point, it comes right out of the box ready to use with two AAA batteries already inserted. mibest also includes a neck lanyard and instruction manual.
Finally, mibest does not want anyone using the product to be negatively surprised, so the device alerts you automatically whenever it is running low on battery power.
The Mibest pulse oximeter delivers where it matters most; easy to use with clear and accurate data, all in a simple, elegant device. However, the fact it can take a number of seconds to obtain a reading makes it difficult to recommend for medical use.
7. Deluxe SM-110 Two Way Display Finger Pulse Oximeter
In addition to reading your blood oxygen saturation level (SpO2), the Santamedical Deluxe SM-110 also reads your pulse rate and pulse strength. Not only does it provide those three key pieces of data, but it also does so in as little as 8 seconds.
Santamedical recognizes how important it is for the data to be clear and easy to read, as well, presenting the user with a large red LED display. The display flips as well, letting you see your own data or check someone else’s with equal ease. In addition to the numbers, the readout also provides an easy-to-read bar graph.
That ease of use makes it able to be properly utilized by all ages. Santamedical has gone the extra mile to reinforce that by offering a design that can fit fingers of a wide range of sizes and a 1-year warranty just in case the less gentle and cautious members of your household treat the Oximeter a bit too roughly.
Besides the pulse oximeter, Santamedical also provides the two AAA batteries needed to power the device, a case, a neck/wrist cord, and a simple Users’ Guide for reference.
This Santamedical’s pulse oximeter is a SpO2%, and the pulse rate is displayed on a screen, very straightforward and convenient to use in operation. Likewise, this product is very light, and compact weighing only 50g including batteries.
More so, it has low power consumption with two pieces of AAA batteries that can be continuously operated for 30 hours. This pulse oximeter is perfect to be used by a variety of sports enthusiasts, including mountain climbers, hikers, skiers, bikers, among others who are interested in measuring oxygen saturation and pulse rate. It comes with a hanging neck and wrist strap and case on the move. It is even easy to carry and backed by a 100% satisfaction guarantee.
For anyone that has owned a Santamedical oximeter before, the oximeter itself will not seem that different from previous incarnations.
This edition is a redesign of the model that came out in 2015, with the most significant change being the new 2-way display. This enables the user to read the output data in two different directions.
The benefit here, of course, is designed for sports and recreational users that wish to measure pulse rate and strength while on the fly.
Precision is key, no matter what the circumstances of operation. The oximeter needs to be accurate, reliable and has an excellent battery life so that you can be sure the oximeter will power up when we need it.
This is where the majority of users have been especially satisfied by the SM-110. It provides SpO2 readings and pulse measurements and the LED display is large yet battery efficient.
Adding to that overall ease of operation is the self-adjusting finger clamp that slips on without fuss, and then the press of just one-button to take a reading. (This adjustable clamp also means that the SM-110 is suitable for use on both children and adults.)
The portable size of the SM-110 makes it easy to handle and carry. Strap it around your neck or wrist, throw it in your rucksack – whatever takes your fancy you extreme sports fanatic you.
And should your activities damage the device, you can always try and get away with the claiming on the 2-year warranty.
- Reads fast
- Very accurate
- The display is great
- Very functional
- Easy to use
6. Zacurate Pro Series 500DL Fingertip Pulse Oximeter
The Zacurate Pro Series 500DL Fingertip Pulse Oximeter is a top-of-line fingertip oximeter built for professional athletes. It displays Sp02 and pulse readings in 10 seconds or less, can read and display Sp02 levels of up to 100%, and features a bright red-on-black digital display that’s easy to read under any light. It’s small, compact, and durable, comes with a silicon cover to protect the unit from dirt, moisture, and display damage, and includes a handy lanyard that attaches to the unit for easy wearing around the neck.
In ten seconds, Zacurate’s oximeter can determine and display your Sp02, pulse rate, and pulse strength. While all pulse oximeters deliver SpO2 data, Zacurate stresses their device is the only one with an LED readout that can register and display a full SpO2 value, ensuring absolute accuracy.
If you are looking for a pulse oximeter that provides the best value and affordability, look no further than the Zacurate Pro Series 500DL Pulse Oximeter, which is exactly why it ranks so highly on our list.
For such an affordable price, this one does a great job of delivering fast and accurate SpO2 results – as good as many of the more expensive pulse oximeters. This one may not have each and every one of the bells and whistles that some of the more expensive models have but it does the job just fine.
Not to mention, this model is very durable as well and is built for heavy usage. I often recommend this pulse oximeter for Nursing and Respiratory Therapy students.
Also, this model comes with a lanyard so the athletic types can take it with you on the move without having to find a place to store it. It also comes with a sleek silicon layer that keeps it protected from the elements.
Batteries are included so you can use it right out of the box. It’s easy to use, just turn it on, slip it on your finger (or your patient’s finger) and in a few seconds, the bright large display gives you a readout of the blood oxygen saturation levels, and heart rate; easy peasy.
Unlike other models, Zacurate feels accuracy gets priority over extensive flexibility. Therefore, they have elected to focus their device on users 12 years old and above. This allows the Oximeter to utilize what Zacurate calls the SMART Spring system, ensuring a snug fit that limits any kind of false reading.
As with the others, Zacurate recognizes the importance of the device being ready to use immediately and thus comes packaged with two AAA batteries. It also comes with a silicone protective covering to prevent damage when dropped and exposure to elements like dirt that might reduce its accuracy.
Finally, Zacurate also offers technical support for any US-based users of the product as part of their commitment to their product’s quality.
- Works great
- Lightweight and portable
- Very compact
- Displays accurate readings
- Simple to use
5. AccuMed Fingertip Pulse Oximeter
It comes with a bright LED screen that has an auto-screen rotation, meaning that the display will show on whichever side is most convenient for you.
Designed for home use, exercise, and travel, this fingertip pulse oximeter by AccuMed is an excellent choice for nurses on a low budget. Like the other oximeters on this list, it’s an accurate device ideal for home monitoring of a patient’s vitals as well as a learning device for the nursing school.
Weighing only 50 grams including the batteries, the unit comes with its own travel case and a neck lanyard for easy access anytime.
It comes in three variants, with or without a rotating LED display. We like the version with a rotating screen that allows you to read the SpO2 and pulse rate results in both portrait and landscape mode.
An auto-rotation sensor detects the hand movement and switches from one mode to another automatically.
Not as fast as the Lovia but more accurate, the AccuMed oximeter returns the results in about 10 seconds. An automatic switch-off saves the battery’s life, and you can expect up to 32 hours of uninterrupted runtime.
Designed to fit most finger sizes, this oximeter is ideal for both adults and pediatric patients above four years of age. Just what you need for learning or practice.
It also has auto-brightness adjustment features that will set the optimal screen brightness levels no matter if you’re in a light or dark setting. How cool is that?
It also has long battery life – more than 30 hours of continuous operation. Changing out the battery is also fairly effortless because the back pop on and off easily.
All in all, this is another good pulse oximeter that you really can’t go wrong with. This model works well with adults, children, and even the elderly population as well. So if you’re a Respiratory Therapist, nurse, or doctor, you can definitely use this pulse oximeter to get the job done.
- Very accurate
- Easy to use
- Easy to read the display
- Very sturdy
- Compact and lightweight
4. Innovo Fingertip Pulse Oximeter
The Innovo Deluxe Fingertip pulse oximeter measures SpO2 and Pulse Rate on a high-quality OLED screen (six multidirectional display choices).The Plethysmograph and Perfusion Index (PI), depicts the strength of pulse. Conveniently handle by adults only not by children.
The pressing front button on Oximeter enables to use Oximeter very easily. This device used by doctors and other health professionals. Dimension is 3.4 x 3.1 x 2 inches and weighs 1.6 ounces.
The device is a great choice when you want to measure pulse rate, pulse strength, and SpO2. Moreover, with Plethysmograph and Perfusion index features, the device indicates time to wait for results. These features are great since they allow you get your result reading in perfect time.
Reading figures from this oximeter is easy regardless of the light condition. It boasts large OLED display with adjustable light. Enhanced with 6 layouts and patented rotating rotation, there is no more struggling to check your results.
not only, but the Innovo Deluxe is also designed to help you leave all guesswork out of the game. It’s greatest strength is the plethysmograph and perfusion index that tells you if you measure the vitals correctly.
Thanks to this function, you won’t have to wonder whether the readings are correct or why you receive no readings.
Needless to say, this function makes it perfect for students, inexperienced nurses, as well as people who want to measure their own pulse and blood oxygen saturation from the comfort of their home.
Besides this feature, another nice one is the auditory beep for every detectable pulse and the alarm that warns you when the values are beyond set limits.
Design-wise, the unit presents a multi-directional display with six layout options and looks sleeker, more professional than other finger oximeters.
With a pulse range between 25 and 250 beats per minute and an accuracy of ±2%, the device is suitable to use on kids 12 years old or above as well as adults, and you can expect up to 40 hours of continuous use on one set of batteries.
- Very lightweight
- Shows accurate measures
- Has OLED display screen
- Well built
- Easy to read
- Easy to use
3. CONTEC CMS50NA Pulse Oximeter
The CONTEC CMS50NA Pulse Oximeter is a clever device. Equipped with Photoelectric Oxyhemoglobin Inspection Technology, it can give you some of the fastest most accurate readings of SpO2 levels ever. Along with the usual great features such as being lightweight, consuming low energy, showing accurate results and so on, the Contec Finger Tip Pulse Oximeter is also resistant to external light conditions – that is, reading the results are easy anywhere – whether outside, under indoor lighting or even in darkness.
The CONTEC CMS50NA Pulse Oximeter is popular for measuring SpO2 levels in both, residential as well as professional settings.
- Multiple functions. It measures oxygen saturation level and heart rate.
- Easy to use. Users find the light-up display numbers large enough to read.
Most users find this device to be simple to use and a good value. Some users have received units with battery terminals incorrectly placed and returned or exchanged them.
In addition to being accurate, this device is simple to operate—you just have to turn it on, slip it on, and wait for a reading. It measures your oxygen saturation through a finger sensor and displays both your blood oxygen saturation level as well as your average heart rate.
The batteries are intended to last up to 24 hours, and the device shuts off automatically after five seconds to help battery life last longer.
Best yet, it’s one of the most affordable devices on the market. And with the cheaper price tag, you’re not giving up accuracy—just added features. If all you need is a quick oxygen saturation check, this device gets the job done better than most.
It can accommodate pediatric to adult finger sizes that can be used by sports and exercise enthusiasts as well as anyone interested in measuring pulse rate and oxygen saturation. This pulse oximeter product contains materials made from rubber and includes two pieces of AAA batteries, lanyard, and convenient carrying case in the package.
- Very accurate
- Easy to use
- Very affordable
2. ClinicalGuard CMS-50DL Fingertip Pulse Oximeter
The CMS 50-DL is one of the most popular fingertip pulse oximeters in the world. It’S designed for sports and aviation use, and is not a medical device, but is designed to provide an easy and accurate way for spot-checking your blood oxygen saturation levels and pulse rate with an accuracy of +- 1%.
The Clinical Guard CMS 50-DL is the second entry on our list, a cheap yet reliable device designed for home use but also ideal for nurses. Like the other oximeters above, it determines both the oxyhemoglobin and pulse rate, giving you the results in about 8 seconds.
Packed with accessories, it comes with two batteries, a protective case, and a lanyard that lets you conveniently carry the unit around your neck or on your wrist.
The pulse rate range is not as wide as Innovo’s, but 30-250 beats per minute is still a satisfactory range. Furthermore, the resolution and accuracy are in-line even with the most expensive units, making this device a great choice.
You’ll have to compromise on the display quality, though. The screen is a bit smaller than the average, and the monochromatic display has red digits on a black background. It’s not as fancier as the dual-color displays but still includes all the necessary information.
All in all, this is an accurate, reliable device
The bright LED display allows use in low light – from dark surroundings to bright sunlight. This bright display is viewable in any environment, whether you’re flying, an athlete, or in high al ‘Low Battery’ indicator to signal you to replace your batteries. The pulse oximeter will automatically shut off after 5 seconds without use. Great for saving battery life. Portable and Easy to Carry The small size of the pulse oximeter makes it easy for you to carry around in your everyday life in a pocket or purse. Features Accuracy The gold standard for accuracy.
The CMS-50DL Pulse Oximeter from Contec is designed to provide an easy and accurate way to spot-check your blood oxygen saturation levels and pulse rate up to 2% accuracy. Whether you’re a pilot or an athlete, this oximeter is the perfect choice for on-the-go readings that fit with your lifestyle.
Built on being easy to use, the device can turn on with the touch of a button, and its small size coupled with a soft carrying case makes it a great travel companion that can be taken anywhere. This oximeter is designed for Sports and Aviation use only. Comes with a free carrying case and strap – batteries are NOT included.
- Sport/health enthusiasts – for aviators, sporting enthusiasts, skiers, bikers or high altitude climbing, the cms 50 dl is a reliable companion for quick and easy readings for oxygen saturation.
- Packed with accessories – includes 2x aaa batteries that enables use out of the box, a pulse oximeter case to protect the device whe not in use, and a lanyard for cconvenience as either a wrist strap or to be worn around the neck.
- Accurate, fast and reliable – cms 50 dl fingertip pulse oximeter accurately determines your spo2 in less than 8 seconds
- The original standard – setting the original standard for reliable and consistent pulse oximetry, the cms 50 dl is backed by an ironclad 12 month warranty.
- Designed for sports and aviation enthusiasts and can be used as a heart rate monitor.
- Has good battery life
- Easy to clean
- Very accurate
1. iHealth Air Wireless Fingertip Pulse Oximeter
Ihealth fingertip pulse Oximeter is simple looks like an ordinary Oximeter. It is very easy to operate. This device communicates wirelessly, can also operate on Android, or directly check heartbeat on screen. It has a built-in screen. It has 300mah rechargeable battery. This Oximeter measure SpO2 in range of 70-99%. Like above product, it is also approved by FDA and HIPAA compliant. It is portable, you can carry it anywhere, and still, have your data recorded. It comes in two colors. The company also provides a guide that helps you to use it if any problem occurs.
Smart devices allow you to connect all of your health data in one place, and this pulse oximeter from iHealth is no exception. A finger clamp connects to your smart phone’s app via Bluetooth, where you can store and track your results. The app gives guidance on how to read your results and tells you directly if your oxygen levels are in a normal range.
Not only can you view your results on the app, but this FDA-approved oximeter has a bright display right on the device that’s large and easy to read. If you’re trying to track your oxygen levels regularly, this should be your first pick.
Can use with or without mobile app
Operating temperature 5-40
Approved by FDA and HIPAA
Pulse rate range 30-350bpm
- Light and portable
- Comfortable on the finger
- Came with batteries
- Very accurate
- Has self-shut off
- Good quality
Getting Accurate readings from an oximeter
Even if the oximeter is functioning perfectly without any fault, you might at times end up with wrong and inaccurate results if you do not follow the procedure. Therefore, the following points must be followed in the quest for accurate readings.
Wash your hands properly.
When a pulse oximeter works, it shines some light through the skin. Therefore, in case the skin is dirty, the functioning of the gadget can get interfered with resulting in wrong readings. This call for the cleaning of your fingers and skin before applying the clip on your fingers.
The nail polish similarly blocks the oximeter functionalism by absorbing the produced light. As a result, the information that you would receive would be inaccurate.
Avoid subjecting the oximeter to bright light when in use
Since the gadget operates by emitting the light, exposing it again to excess light when in use would interfere with the light from the system leading to inaccuracy.
Stay still when using the oximeter
It is advisable to avoid moving the body parts when taking the readings for a perfect and accurate result. However, even when measuring the level of oxygen while exercising, you need to stay still when taking the readings.
Best Pulse Oximeters For Your Fingertip Buyer’s Guide
The Most Important Features to Consider
Accuracy is paramount in any medical tool, even ones that aren’t officially intended to act as professional hospital-grade medical tools, but even more so for ones meant for self-diagnosis by non-medical professionals. Therefore it’s a good idea when choosing a portable fingertip oximeter that claims of accuracy on the manufacturer’s part are backed with published evidence or the equivalent. Though peer-reviewed academic studies aren’t likely to be found supporting portable fingertip pulse oximeters, it’s a good idea to see if the products you’re looking at are supported by some sort of clinical trial.
- Easy-To-Read Displays
When testing yourself, it’s important to be able to read the display quickly and easily in any environment and light level- that’s why displays with red or green on black displays are generally the best bet, especially for use during sports and other outdoor or athletic activity. It’s also important to keep in mind that a display that shows more information may actually be harder to read during some activities or by seniors or people with sight issues, so depending on the user, more is not always better.
- Compact, Non-Bulky Design
Oximeters are sophisticated technology and necessarily require a certain amount of bulk to house the needed components and remain durable, but if you’re likely to be using it on the go, it’s ideal to have one that’s been designed to be as compact as possible without sacrificing important features or durability. Thankfully, most commercially available fingertip oximeters at all price lines are designed with this factor in mind, and often include lanyards for wearing around the neck, if they’re too large to fit comfortably in a pocket.